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LTE- Advanced Pro (4.5G)

3GPP announced in October that the next evolution of the 3GPP LTE standards will be known as LTE-Advanced Pro (4.5G). Let us not be confused Advanced Pro with access points friends.

LTE-Advanced Pro (4.5G)  will allow mobile standards users to associate various new features – from the Release’s freeze in March 2016 – with a distinctive marker that evolves the LTE and LTE-Advanced technology series.

The new term is intended to mark the point in time where the LTE platform has been dramatically enhanced to address new markets as well as add functionality to improve efficiency.

LTE-Advanced Pro (4.5G) will further improve network data rate, improve user experience, and expand vertical applications. It will significantly promote the LTE network, and help build better worldwide connections.

The major advances achieved with the completion of Release 13 include: MTC enhancements, public safety features, small cell dual-connectivity and architecture, carrier aggregation enhancements, interworking with Wi-Fi, licensed assisted access (at 5 GHz), indoor positioning, single cell-point to multi-point, and work on latency reduction. Many of these features were started in previous releases but will become mature in Release 13.

The introduction of this new technology confirms the need for LTE enhancements to continue along their distinctive development track, in parallel to the future proposals for the 5G


The above video will give some idea about LTE Advanced Pro (4.5G).

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Voice Over Internet Protocol

Voice Over Internet Protocol


VOIP is an acronym for Voice Over Internet Protocol, or in more common terms phone service over the Internet.

If you have a reasonable quality Internet connection you can get phone service delivered through your Internet connection instead of from your local phone company Some people use VOIP in addition to their traditional phone service since VOIP service providers usually offer lower rates than traditional phone companies, but sometimes doesn’t offer 911 service, phone directory listings, 411 service, or other common phone services. While many VoIP providers offer these services, consistent industry-wide means of offering these are still developing.

How does VOIP work?

A way is required to turn analog phone signals into digital signals that can be sent over the Internet.

This function can either be included in the phone itself or in a separate box like an ATA.


Ordinary Phone —- ATA —- Ethernet —- Router —- Internet —- VOIP Service Provider

VOIP using an IP Phone

IP Phone —– Ethernet —– Router —- Internet —- VOIP Service Provider


It is also possible to bypass a VOIP Service Provider and directly connect to another VOIP user. However, if the VOIP devices are behind NAT routers, there may be problems with this approach.

IP Phone —– Ethernet —– Router —- Internet —- Router —- Ethernet —- IP Phone

Why use VOIP?

There are two major reasons to use VOIP

  • Lower Cost
  • Increased functionality


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Voice Over LTE

What’s so good about it?

The big advantage of VoLTE is that call quality is superior to 3G or 2G connections as far more data can be transferred over 4G than 2G or 3G. Up to three times as much data as 3G and up to six times as much as 2G to be precise, making it easier to make out not only what the person on the other end of the line is saying, but also their tone of voice. Essentially it’s an HD voice call and it’s a much richer experience overall.

VoLTE can also connect calls up to twice as fast as the current methods and as 2G and 3G connections will still be available when there’s no 4G signal it simply means that there’s greater mobile coverage overall, as currently places with a 4G signal but no 2G or 3G one can’t make or receive calls. You might think that would be a rare occurrence, but some of the frequencies that 4G operates on, such as the 800MHz spectrum, have far greater reach than 2G or 3G spectrum, so you’ll be able to get signal further away from a mast or in buildings which other signals struggle to penetrate. Indeed, Three is fully relying on its 800MHz spectrum for VoLTE calls.

However, while 2G and 3G services would likely remain they wouldn’t be as necessary as they are now and much of the spectrum used for 2G, in particular, could potentially be repurposed to increase capacity on 4G networks.

Anyone who currently uses 4G could also find their battery life increased with VoLTE, as right now whenever you make or receive a call your phone has to switch from 4G to 2G or 3G since 4G calls aren’t supported (other than on Three Super-Voice) and then once the call is finished it switches back again. All that switching, plus the need to search for a different signal each time, can give the battery a significant hit.

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For example:-  A baud rate of 1 kBd = 1000 Bd is synonymous with a symbol rate of 1,000 symbols per second. In the case of a modem, this corresponds to 1,000 tones per second, and in the case of a line code, this corresponds to 1,000 pulses per second. The symbol duration time is 1/1,000 second = 1 millisecond.

Also if any circuit shows a baud rate of 9600, that means the circuit changes its signal-state 9600 times in a second. Signal-State change can include 0 to 1 or vice versa.

The symbol rate is related to but should not be confused with the gross bit rate expressed in bit/s.

Bandwidth depends on the baud rate.

Bit Rate is the number of data bits (i.e. ‘0’ or ‘1’) transferred per second in a communication channel.

For example:- A bitrate of 2400 means there are 2400 ‘0’s or ‘1’s to be transmitted across communication channel in 1 second. Date rate depends on bit rate

The main difference between the two is that one change of state can transmit one bit, or slightly more or less than one bit, which depends on the modulation technique used. So the bit rate (bps) and baud rate (baud per second) have this connection: