Baud rate is the number of change in signal-state/ pulse/symbol per second in a communication channel.

For example :-  A baud rate of 1 kBd = 1000 Bd is synonymous to a symbol rate of 1,000 symbols per second. In case of a modem, this corresponds to 1,000 tones per second, and in case of a line code, this corresponds to 1,000 pulses per second. The symbol duration time is 1/1,000 second = 1 millisecond.

Also if any circuit shows a baud rate of 9600, that means circuit changes its signal-state 9600 times in a second. Signal-State change can include 0 to 1 or vice versa.

The symbol rate is related to but should not be confused with gross bit rate expressed in bit/s.

Bandwidth is depend on baud rate.


Bit Rate is the number of data bits (i.e. ‘0’ or ‘1’) transferred per second in a communication channel.

For example :- A bitrate of 2400 means there are 2400 ‘0’s or ‘1’s to be transmitted across communication channel in 1 second.Date rate is depend on bit rate

The main difference between the two is that one change of state can transmit one bit, or slightly more or less than one bit, that depends on the modulation technique used. So the bit rate (bps) and baud rate (baud per second) have this connection:

Voice Over LTE

VoLTE stands for voice over LTE and it’s more or less exactly what it says on the tin. It’s voice calls over a 4G LTE network, rather than the 2G or 3G connections which are usually used. We tend to think of 4G as mostly being about downloading, streaming and web browsing, and indeed that’s primarily what it’s been used for so far, but it could also be used to improve calls.


What’s so good about it?

The big advantage of VoLTE is that call quality is superior to 3G or 2G connections as far more data can be transferred over 4G than 2G or 3G. Up to three times as much data as 3G and up to six times as much as 2G to be precise, making it easier to make out not only what the person on the other end of the line is saying, but also their tone of voice. Essentially it’s an HD voice call and it’s a much richer experience over all.

VoLTE can also connect calls up to twice as fast as the current methods and as 2G and 3G connections will still be available when there’s no 4G signal it simply means that there’s greater mobile coverage overall, as currently places with a 4G signal but no 2G or 3G one can’t make or receive calls.You might think that would be a rare occurrence, but some of the frequencies that 4G operates on, such as the 800MHz spectrum, have far greater reach than 2G or 3G spectrum, so you’ll be able to get signal further away from a mast or in buildings which other signals struggle to penetrate. Indeed, Three is fully relying on its 800MHz spectrum for VoLTE calls.

However, while 2G and 3G services would likely remain they wouldn’t be as necessary as they are now and much of the spectrum used for 2G in particular could potentially be repurposed to increase capacity on 4G networks.

Anyone who currently uses 4G could also find their battery life increased with VoLTE, as right now whenever you make or receive a call your phone has to switch from 4G to 2G or 3G, since 4G calls aren’t supported (other than on Three Super-Voice) and then once the call is finished it switches back again. All that switching, plus the need to search for a different signal each time, can give the battery a significant hit.

Voice Over Internet Protocol

What is VOIP


VOIP is an acronym for Voice Over Internet Protocol, or in more common terms phone service over the Internet.

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If you have a reasonable quality Internet connection you can get phone service delivered through your Internet connection instead of from your local phone company Some people use VOIP in addition to their traditional phone service, since VOIP service providers usually offer lower rates than traditional phone companies, but sometimes doesn’t offer 911 service, phone directory listings, 411 service, or other common phone services. While many VoIP providers offer these services, consistent industry-wide means of offering these are still developing.

How does VOIP work?

A way is required to turn analog phone signals into digital signals that can be sent over the Internet.

This function can either be included into the phone itself or in a separate box like an ATA .

VOIP Using an ATA (Analog telephone adapter)

Ordinary Phone —- ATA —- Ethernet —- Router —- Internet —- VOIP Service Provider


VOIP using an IP Phone

IP Phone —– Ethernet —– Router —- Internet —- VOIP Service Provider

VOIP connecting directly

It is also possible to bypass a VOIP Service Provider and directly connect to another VOIP user. However, if the VOIP devices are behind NAT routers, there may be problems with this approach.

IP Phone —– Ethernet —– Router —- Internet —- Router —- Ethernet —- IP Phone


Why use VOIP?

There are two major reasons to use VOIP

  • Lower Cost
  • Increased functionality


Teleman India is revolutionary Telecom Training Course in Thane, Mumbai & Pune. Teleman provided certified courses for freshers and professionals also. The courses are designed and updated constantly after understanding the needs of the industry. Teleman provides Teleman Certified Wireless Maintenance Professional training in Mumbai. It gives you overview about Communication fundamentals, Understanding of transmission technology, Switching technology, Internet, Broadband systems, Wireless technologies and networks.


LTE- Advanced Pro (4.5G)

3GPP announced in October that the next evolution of the 3GPP LTE standards will be known as LTE-Advanced Pro (4.5G). Let us not be confused Advanced Pro with access points friends.


LTE-Advanced Pro (4.5G)  will allow mobile standards users to associate various new features – from the Release’s freeze in March 2016 – with a distinctive marker that evolves the LTE and LTE-Advanced technology series.

The new term is intended to mark the point in time where the LTE platform has been dramatically enhanced to address new markets as well as adding functionality to improve efficiency.

LTE-Advanced Pro (4.5G) will further improve network data rate, improve user experience, and expand vertical applications. It will significantly promote the LTE network, and help build better world-wide connections.

The major advances achieved with the completion of Release 13 include: MTC enhancements, public safety features, small cell dual-connectivity and architecture, carrier aggregation enhancements, interworking with Wi-Fi, licensed assisted access (at 5 GHz), indoor positioning, single cell-point to multi-point and work on latency reduction. Many of these features were started in previous Releases, but will become mature in Release 13.

The introduction of this new technology confirms the need for LTE enhancements to continue along their distinctive development track, in parallel to the future proposals for the 5G

Above video will give some idea about LTE Advanced Pro (4.5G).

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Telecom India is Helping to Make India Fully Digitized

You are holding the world in your fist because “Telecom India is helping to make India fully digitized

India has emerged as the second largest telecommunication market with the third highest internet users in the world. We are expected to reach 236 million internet users by 2016.  In the process Indian telecom companies like Bharti Airtel, Vodafone, BSNL, Idea, and Reliance have grown to become world leaders in telecom. With DIGITAL INDIA we are moving towards creating two way platforms between consumer and providers of services. There are ten pillars of Digital India Program

  1. Broadband Highways
  2. Universal Access to Mobile Connectivity
  3. Public Internet Access Program
  4. e-Governance – Reforming Government through Technology
  5. eKranti – Electronic delivery of services
  6. Information for All
  7. Electronics Manufacturing
  8. IT for Jobs
  9. Early Harvest Program
  10. Upgradation of Indian IT

Wireless technology is driving our youth and old alike to use net based services on their mobiles. The next boom beyond bluetooth, wi-fi, Wi-Max is Li-Fi (Light Fidelity) which is bi-directional, offering high speeds up to 224 Gbps in wireless communication.

Looking towards 2016 market drivers for  telecom would be cloud computing, Li-Fi, 4G/LTE , big data services and further advanced technologies. Wireless devices are soon to overcome wired network and will account for more than 50 % internet traffic. 5G technology is in progress and telecom companies are working hard to make it happen, facilitating the development of Smart homes, Smart Cities and Smart country.

 Telecom India denotes India’s success and this approach is being followed by other developing countries. Due to Telecom India, individuals will gain more power to choose where and how to interact with their environment.

The world is in our hands today , we can give it our own shape. 

Teleman is the great revolutionary training institute in Telecom Industry. We provide a verity certified courses for students as well as professionals. A well structured and dynamic syllabi helps to place trained telecom manpower that helps the telecom industry evolve with newer technologies and services.

Teleman provides different Certified courses they are as follows:-

1.Teleman Certified Wireless Maintenance Professional

2.Teleman Certified Embedded System Professional

3.Teleman Certified Fibre Optics Professional

4.Teleman Certified Smart Phone Repair -Level II

Li-Fi Wireless Technology

Li-Fi (Light Fidelity) is a bidirectional, high speed and fully networked wireless communication technology similar to Wi-Fi. The term was coined by Harald Haas and is a form of visible light communication and a subset of optical wireless communication (OWC) and could be a complement to RF communication (Wi-Fi or Cellular network), or even a replacement in contexts of data broadcasting. It is so far measured to be about 100 times faster than some Wi-Fi implementations, reaching speeds of 224 gigabits per seconds. This OWC technology uses light from light emitting diodes (LED) as a medium to deliver networked, mobile, high-speed communication in a similar manner to Wi-Fi.

It is wireless and uses visible light communication or infra-red and near ultraviolet (instead of radio frequency waves) spectrum, part of optical wireless communications technology, which carries much more information, and has been proposed as a solution to the RF-Bandwidth Limitation.

Li-Fi has the advantage of being useful in electromagnetic sensitive areas such as in aircraft cabins, hospitals and nuclear power plants without causing electromagnetic Interference. Direct line of sight isn’t necessary for Li-Fi to transmit a signal; light reflected off the walls can achieve 70 Mbits/s.

Li-Fi is expected to be ten times cheaper than Wi-Fi. The Li-Fi market is projected to have a compound annual growth rate of 82% from 2013 to 2018 and to be worth over $6 billion per year by 2018.

The future is Li Fi, get used to it.

Teleman is the great revolutionary training institute in Telecom Industry. We provide a verity certified courses for students as well as professionals. A well structured and dynamic syllabi helps to place trained telecom manpower that helps the telecom industry evolve with newer technologies and services.
Teleman provides different Certified courses they are as follows:-

1.Teleman Certified Wireless Maintenance Professional
2.Teleman Certified Embedded System Professional
3.Teleman Certified Fibre Optics Professional
4.Teleman Certified Smart Phone Repair -Level II

Fiber To The Home (FTTH)

 Fiber to the home (FTTH), also called “fiber to the premises” (FTTP), is the installation and use of optical fiber from a central point directly to individual buildings such as residences, apartment buildings and businesses to provide unprecedented high-speed Internet access. FTTH dramatically increases the connection speeds available to computer users compared with technologies now used in most places.  Fiber technology is the infrastructure of our country’s future.

Telecommunications networks began the evolution toward phasing out copper plant and deploying fiber optic transmission facilities all the way to consumers’ homes.  Within the next five to ten years, most networks – including the landline potion of wireless networks – will be all-fiber.  Only fiber facilities have the capability to deliver the high-performance connectivity that consumers need as they make use of increasingly sophisticated devices to access applications and vast amounts of content – video on demand, teleconferencing, cloud computing and a host of applications aimed at improving health, education and the quality of our lives.

Most notably, unlike copper cable, fiber cable does not corrode when there is rain or storm water intrusion.  This lowers maintenance costs significantly.  Further, copper-based systems tend to need more active (powered) equipment in the field, so power must be brought to that equipment on yet more copper wiring.  Each piece of active equipment is yet another opportunity for failure.  In contrast, all-fiber networks generally are built with little or no field equipment that needs power, greatly enhancing their reliability.

 All-fiber networks too are designed with back-up capabilities to deal with the vast majority of power outages.  These networks usually have battery backup in the network or at the subscriber premises, where batteries in subscriber devices generally last for eight hours during an outage.  So far, this practice has worked for consumers.

The goal to accelerate FTTH deployments, upgrading our communications infrastructure for the 21st economy.

 Indian telecom industry is one of the fastest-growing industries in the world. Teleman India is the revolutionary telecom Institute in India. We provide training for the students as well as professionals also. Teleman provides different courses such as-

  1. Teleman Certified Wireless Maintenance Professional
  2. Teleman Certified Embedded System Professional
  3. Teleman Certified Fibre Optics Professional
  4. Teleman Certified Smart Phone Repair -Level II

Wireless Telecom Training Courses in Mumbai and Pune

Telecom is one the fastest growing industry in India. In today’s market world, India stands as the second-largest telecommunications market. India is evolved in telecom sector has passed more than 150 years. Telecommunications was first introduced in India in 1851. There is great growth in both consumers as well as revenues from telecom services but also providing employment to youth of India.

There are mainly two major segments that are categorized as fixed and wireless cellular services in telecom sector. The telecom industry in India is experiencing a rapid growth over the making telecom sector one of the major catalysts in India.

To gain telecommunications skills students can expect to take a variety of high quality technical course to make their fast-paced career in telecom or wireless sectors.

Students can go for Technicians courses may complete certification to perform certain work with variety equipment, which typically have training courses associated with them.

There are various telecom training institutes available at different locations. Different types of courses under telecommunication are as follows:

Teleman Institute of Wireless Technologies Pvt. Ltd in India is one of the best telecom training institutes in Pune, Thane, and Mumbai, India.